the madam


is michelle obama real

Favorite Movies: ParaNorman (2012; Chris Butler & Sam Fell).

"What are you thinking? What are you feeling? What have we done to each other? What will we do?" - Gone Girl (2014)

and we’ll be good


nothing i do for the rest of my life will ever top this

"Fan fiction gives women and other marginalised groups the chance to subvert the mainstream perspective, to fracture a story and recast it in their own way. It’s not for the benefit of middle-aged men with a vast audience and little understanding of the form."  - Elizabeth Minkel on Why it doesn’t matter what Benedict Cumberbatch thinks of Sherlock fan fiction. (via otterymary)

i don’t need your fucking sass today 


i don’t need your fucking sass today 


how u gon carry a baby for 9 months and name it gary

hannibal cast being adorable in the gif-interview. 


Notable Portuguese Paintings:
Portrait of king John I, unknown master, possibly ‘30s or ‘40s decade of the 15th century. Oil on wood, 41 x 32 cm, Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon.

Discovered in 1877 at the Kunsthisrisches Museum of Vienna, this portrait of the first king of the Avis dynasty is the prime example of the complex problematic that is 15th century Portuguese painting. This means that, throughout artistic historiography, the painting has been attributed to numerous paintings, from António Florentim, one of the numerous painters we know to have existed but not having works to attribute to, to the prime of renaissance Portuguese art, Francisco de Holanda. Whoever the painter, we must take into account the lack of proof, keeping an open option in this analysis.

We can however assert that the style of this painting is close to a French-Flemish hand, which is to become, as we know today, the main stylistic influence in 15th century Portuguese art.

An inscription that goes around the frame tells us a valuable piece of information, particularly regarding the possible date of execution of this painting and later alterations. Along the borders of the frame, which is most likely the original framing of this piece, it says:

Haec est vera digne ac venerabilis memorie Domini Joannis defũcti quond(am) Portugalie nobilissimi et illustrissimi regis ymago quippe qui dũ viveret de juberot victoria potitus est potentissima

which translates to: This is the true image of the deceased Dom João [king John] of worthy and venerable memory once very noble and very illustrious king of Portugal who in his life obtained the very powerful victory in Aljubarrota. The battle here mentioned, perhaps king John’s most notable achievement (a battle won against Juan I of Castille in 1385) is mentioned in chronicles and other important documents of the 15th century as simply the Battle or the Royal Battle, related to the victorious memory of this king. The specific mention of which battle this is sets us to further in time, a posthumous painting of the king. – in fact, as farther as the 18th century. The mention of ‘de juberot’ as being the battle of Aljubarrota also tells us this inscription was also added by a foreigner source.

According to the 15th century traditions of devotional portraiture, this portrait stands out strangely. Which is to say it is incomplete. Devotional portraits of the 15th century were not created with a stand-alone figure. They would have been accompanied by another element: it could be a completing piece that would either close like a box or in the form of an altarpiece; or it would possess a statue that would be placed in between the devotional figures. We do not know what would have been the case here, the chosen position of a ¾ portrait (the preferred pose in Flemish art, as opposed to the profile portraits of Italian renaissance) with the figure’s hands in prayer tells us it would not have stood alone, and would have been accompanied by a figure of devotion. As any other possibility, this is merely a guessing: the framing does not support this theory, rather is is given by the formalistic approach of the composition along the general picture of 15th century portraiture painting.

Infra-red studies showed the drawing beneath to have guidelines: the poncif style, a series of dots as guidelines to define the outline of the drawing, something achieved through the appliance of a dotted exterior drawing, through which a powdered pigment will pass through, defining in the canvas the final outline of the portrait. This characteristic is present in the most important outlines of what defines the portrait: mouth, eyes, nose, ears and the contours of the face. This gives the possibility of this painting not being a complete original, but a copy of a pre-existing model.

The figure of the king himself bares the key to understanding this portrait. Much like the controversy regarding one of the portraits at the Saint Vincent Panels, it all comes down to one simple element: beards. If the absence of a beard in the mysterious figures dressed in black is an element of identification, here the lack of a beard is a chronological element. Chronicles and descriptions of his time describe John I as possessing a beard as his regular fashion. However, it was costume to shave one’s beard upon their death. Effigies show this clearly, particularly on the sculpting tradition of the 14th and 15th century in Portugal. Here, the lack of a beard, when joined to the devotional position of the king’s hands, indicates that this is a posthumous painting.

Whatever might have happened to the missing half of this devotional portrait, it is not known, but when it comes to the general picture of 15th century Portuguese art, this painting stands as an important case of study. It defines the major influence of the art in the following century, through characteristics such as the use of a drape d’honneur, something we will see in Nuno Gonçalves, the ¾ position of the head, the detail applied to facial features and the stylization of the hands, the type of red here applied and the contrasts between the applied colors. This is also indicative of not only this incredibly important artistic influence, but the preference standing over the rejection of Italian canons, which will show a bigger influence mostly from the early quarter of the 15th century onwards.